Appeared at the end of the 18th century in England, What is industrialization? It represents the development process of so-called “industrial” activities. The industrial revolution marks the beginning of the industrial. This resulted in the appearance of machinery in the United Kingdom, before reaching Europe then the United States and, finally, Japan from 1870.
The first industrial revolution: the origin of industrialization
Industrialization appeared during the first industrial revolution. Initially, only the steel and textile sectors were concerned. The railways made it possible to develop industrialization: the steam engine, machinery.
During the first half of the 19th century, the textile industry positioned itself as the first motor industry. The second half of the 19th century was marked by the rise of the railway, a major player in the development of the steel and iron industry.
Manufacturing industrialization has led to the expansion of the extractive industry (coal, oil, metals, etc.). Societies, until then agrarian, become urban. Farmers turn into workers. From the middle of the 19th century, industrial production took precedence over the agricultural industry in the United Kingdom. It was not until 1875 that this same phenomenon occurred in France.
Little by little, urbanization is developing in the same way as industrial basins in the areas where raw materials, energy and navigation or traffic routes are present.
Industrialization and the division of labor
In order to attract investment, companies adopt the status of joint stock companies and then sell their shares on the stock market. Industrialization is then marked by the development of industrial capitalism.
The social and political organization is undergoing a change. In the factories, the hierarchical organization of work is carried out according to different levels: workers, skilled workers, foremen, team leaders, engineers, assistant managers, factory directors, etc.
Economic productivity is growing, aligned with the development of machinery. In the 19th century, industrialization was marked by the change in production techniques which resulted in the transition from artisanal production to mass production, in large series and standardized.
To promote innovation, industrialization has led to the emergence of legal protection for industrial property. This era was marked by the development of rail, roads, motor vehicles, etc.
The second industrial revolution
This second industrial revolution, from 1890, was based on heavy industry, chemistry, the automobile and electricity.
Companies, to manufacture new products, are forced to reorganize. The objective? Set up an organization system to streamline work.
In 1880 Taylorism appeared. The principle ? Improve labor productivity by using working methods that separate design and manufacturing tasks, and then divide tasks in line work.
The manufacturing process is broken down into simple tasks to allow the worker to repeat the same gestures.
Fordism is a variant of Taylorism. The worker no longer moves towards the parts to be assembled, these are the parts that present themselves to the worker.
Mechanization, standardization and fragmentation of tasks aim to improve productivity and take advantage of economies of scale by reducing production costs. These methods allow massive employment of workers.
Companies manufacturing the same product focus horizontally to specialize in one main activity. On the other hand, throughout the production chain of the companies are concentrated vertically in order to group together all the activities.
Depending on the country, different forms of business combinations are formed:
Cartels bring together companies manufacturing the same product. The latter agree on the prices and the quantity to be produced. Germany then shelters numerous cartels.
Trusts concern companies with a quasi-monopoly position in a specific economic sector.
The zaibatsus, a pyramidal grouping of companies linked to a banking establishment which provides their financing. This type of structure is very present in Japan.
Industrialization since the 20th century
The industrialization process continued in the 20th century with the appearance of the industry linked to household goods such as radio, television, household appliances, etc. Consumer goods and disposables are developing more and more.
Manufacturing techniques are evolving, particularly with robotization. During the 1970s, the manufacturing industry represented 40% of German industrial production.
The industrialization of developing countries is accompanied by technology transfers. China, South Korea and Asia have been able to industrialize at exceptional speed.
Now, as Western countries increasingly deindustrialize, the African continent is industrializing more and more to be able to respond to the many challenges it faces in the coming decades.
Read also: https://www.afrikatech.com/fr/entreprendre/afrique-industrie-liberer-le-potentiel-des-entrepreneurs/
Other: https://www.un.org/africarenewal/fr/magazine/ao%C3%BBt-novembre-2016/industrialisation-l%E2%80%99%C3%A9chec-de-l%E2%80% 99afrique